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Macromolecules in Biology!!

Biology is defined as the study of bio molecules staring from life to death.  In biology one has overheard the word called macromolecules which can be described as single units. In macromolecules the molecules are joined by covalent bond so that they can form larger polymers.

These macromolecules can be divided in four categories given as –

  1. Proteins
  2. Lipids
  3. Carbohydrates
  4. Nucleic acids

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Proteins are the key feature element in macromolecules and every element on earth consists of proteins in them which is responsible for strength in most of molecules. Enzymes, hormones and many other consist of high amount of protein in them.

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The monomer of protein is amino acids.


−NH2 + −COOH +R group

The basic formula of protein macromolecule

The protein in a body can be used in transport, receptors, contractile, defensive, etc.


Lipids are having monomer of fatty acids as well as glycerol. These lipids can be used in butter, oil, cholesterol, beeswax and milk, etc.

These lipids are used to store the energy in different organism, protection, chemical messengers, repel water, etc.


This is the basic key feature in lipids and the ratio is 2:1

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The carbohydrates are having monomer called Monosaccharide which can be found in glucose, fructose, glycogen, cellulose and starch.

The carbohydrates are having monomer called Monosaccharide which can be found in glucose, fructose, glycogen, cellulose and starch.

Nucleic Acids

The monomer of nucleic acid is Nucleotides and can be found in DNA and RNA. The monomer of this acid is pentose, nitrogenous base, phosphate.  

Dehydration Synthesis

Most monomers are formed form single units called monomers and these monomers combine together to form a covalent to form larger molecules also called polymers. Monomers release water molecules as byproducts. This type of reaction is called dehydration synthesis, which means “loosing water while putting together”

In the above figure two molecules of glucose are linked together to form he disaccharide maltose. In the process, you can check a water molecule is formed.


The polymers which are run down in order to form monomers called hydrolysis which means to separate the water. The reaction in which the water molecule is used to breakdown given by-

In this figure we can check the disaccharide maltose is run down to form two glucose monomers with the addition of a water molecule. Interesting thing is that this reaction is the reverse of the synthesis reaction shown in Figure 1.

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Dehydration process can be speed up by using catalyst. In dehydration there are various new bond formation which results in release of energy. For an instance, in our bodies, food is hydrolyzed, or broken down into smaller molecules by catalytic enzymes which are present in digestive system. This process allows for an easy absorption of nutrients by cells in the intestine. Each macromolecule is broken down by a specific enzyme present in specific location. For an example, Lipids are broken down by lipases, proteins are further broken down by pepsin and peptidase, and carbohydrates are broken down by amylase, sucrose, lactase, or maltase.

Breaking down of these molecules in our body provides energy that is the only reason we are able to do various kinds of activities.

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