Have you ever wondered what we are made up of? What exactly makes the essence of our bodies? Robert Hooke, in 1665, observed the cork of a tree and gave the world the novel idea of “cell”. Cell, in Latin, means a small room. Vanya’s online tutoring teachers explain this topic thoroughly.
Cells look similar to each other and are found in every living being. These cells together formulate a big structure say an organ, skin, bone, or a being. As you might have guessed, cells of similar structure form the same body part. A sperm is a cell, an ovum is a cell, and your brain is made up of different cells, nerve cells being the main one. Even the bodily fats you store in your body are also nothing but a combination of cells.
Our body has different organs for different chores like a heart to pump, kidneys to pass urine, eyes to see, etc. Just like that, a cell is made up of different organs of itself called organelles.
A cell is classified into following things:
A cell membrane: The membrane that separates the cell contents from its external environment that is responsible for the exchange of materials to and fro of a cell.
A cell wall: This is found in plant cells as an additional layer to the cell membrane. It is made up of cellulose, a complex substance that also provides concrete structural strength to plants.
Nucleus: A nucleus contains chromosomes that are visible rod-shaped structures when the cell is about to reproduce (divide into two). Nucleus has a nucleus membrane just like a cell membrane working just the same that is allowing intake and outtake of materials.
Cytoplasm: The fluid inside the plasma membrane is called cytoplasm. It contains various cell organelles.
Cell organelles: There are various cell organelles in a cell body that are responsible for different jobs:
- Mitochondria: The powerhouse of a cell, mitochondria, is covered up with two membranes. It is called the powerhouse because the energy required for various chemical activities is provided by mitochondria.
- Endoplasmic Reticulum: Provides a surface for biochemical activities of the cell and is also responsible for the transport of materials between cells and the nucleus.
- Plastids: They are only present in plant cells and are of two types:
- Leucoplasts: They have oils, starch, and protein granules stored in them.
- Chromoplasts: They contain pigments such as chlorophyll (called chloroplasts) and others.
- Golgi apparatus: This includes functions like the storage, modification, and packaging of products in vesicles.
- Lysosomes: They contain digestive enzymes and play a vital role in the digestion process.
- Vacuoles: They are storage sacs for liquid or solid contents; they are larger in plant cells and comparatively smaller in animal cells.
This article served as an introduction to the fundamental unit of life – the cell but there is much more to know about this topic in depth. Join Vnaya’s online classes to know more details on the topic which combines creative and intuitive approaches together to enhance your knowledge.
Related Blog: https://www.vnaya.com/introduction-molecular-biology/