You Know Habits are hard to break right? That’s why the sooner in life we build good, healthy habits, the easier
it is to keep them and stay as healthy as possible. And when good habits are in place,
it’s easier to resist bad ones. In this article, you will study about the biological
reasons behind the habits that we all have.
Hunger is analyzed by three different components
Stomach Contraction Theory – This was given by Cannon and Washburn. It states that we are hungry when our stomach contracts.
Washburn trained himself to swallow a balloon which was attached to a tube then the balloon was inflated inside of his stomach. When the balloon was inflated he did not feel hungry. Later this theory was opposed by fact that people whose stomachs were removed still felt hungry.
Glucose Theory – It states that we feel hungry when our blood glucose level is low.
Insulin Theory – It states that we feel hungry when our insulin level increases suddenly in our bodies.
This theory indicates that we have to increase our insulin level in order to feel hungry.
Heat Production Theory – It states that we feel hungry when our body temperature drops and when it rises hunger decreases.
This theory indicates that we eat more during winters.
As human beings, we cannot ignore psychological part, the learned and cognitive components of hunger. Hunger depends on the external time also. For eg. At 12 PM we feel hungry because it is lunch time. This is because of learned behavior. There are four basic tastes: sweet, sour, bitter and salty. People keep feeling hungry until these four tastes are satisfied.
Satiety is the absence of hunger. There are two mechanisms: at brain level and at gastrointestinal level.
At brain level: There are two places in the hypothalamus: gives Ventromedial nuclei and Lateral hypothalamus. Ventromedial Nivea signal when to stop eating. Lateral hypothalamus gives a signal to start eating.
At gastrointestinal level: Satiety signals come from stomach which controls short term eating.
Two Process Model of Sleep Regulation
The sleep-wake cycle is regulated by two separate biological mechanisms. It was proposed by Alexander Borbely. There are two processes:
- Circadian rhythm
- Sleep-wake homeostasis
Circadian rhythm –
A daily cycle of biological activity. It is also known as Process C . The regulation of body’s internal processes and alertness levels is governed by the internal biological or circadian clock.
Body’s built in circadian clock is centered in the hypothalamus in the brain. It is the main mechanism that controls the timing of sleep and is independent of the amount of preceding sleep or wakefulness. This internal clock is coordinated with day-night (light-dark cycle) over 24 hour period and regulate body’s sleep patterns.
Sleep-wake homeostasis –
It is the accumulation of hypogenic ( sleep-inducing ) substances in the brain which generates a homeostatic sleep drive. It is also known as Process.
External factors eg. Food, drugs, meal times, naps, stress, exercise.
- Somnipathy or Dyssomnia – Less than adequate sleep to the extent that this may interfere with the person’s normal physical, mental and emotional functioning.
- Hypersomnia or Narcolepsy – Excessive sleep. People who have Hypersomnia can fall asleep anytime. For instance, at work or while, they are driving. Its causes are sleep deprivation (not having enough sleep at night), being overweight, drug or alcohol abuse, head injury such as multiple sclerosis, Prescription drugs such as tranquilizers, depression.
Diagnosis – Doctor asks about your sleeping habits, how much you sleep at night, any emotional problem.
Treatment – Stimulants, antidepressants are given.
- Insomnia – Lack of sleep. Its cause is stress and anxiety – school or job-related to pressure, family or marriage problem, serious illness or death in the family. If short time insomnia is not managed properly it can morph into the long-term problem, persisting long after the original stress has passed.
- Fatal familial insomnia – It is a rare genetic sleep disorder. It appears in late adulthood. In this, malformed proteins called prions attack the thalamus, an organ in the brain that plays a major role in regulating sleep. The victim gradually completely loses the ability to sleep – first the ability to nap and then the ability to sleep at night. It is followed by hallucinations then rapid weight loss and then dementia (memory loss).
Twenty minutes of light running is enough to increase the dopamine level. In high-intensity sports such as Freeletics, your brain starts to release dopamine just after a few minutes. This release makes you more alert, more focused and improves your concentration. The more you run, the more dopamine is released.
After running, the level of dopamine decreases while the level of serotonin increases. Serotonin is a hormonal antagonist to dopamine. It is involved in the regulation of sleep-wake cycle and body temperature. It controls appetite and lowers pain sensitivity. It is primarily known as a feel-good hormone because its release leads to a feeling of inner satisfaction.
It is necessary to detox the hormones to keep the body clean. The human body needs a balance of all three macronutrients – carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
Fat is one of the most crucial elements for hormonal balance. Healthy fat is a raw material that we need to produce and maintain proper hormonal function.
Certain fats are required for rebuilding cells and stabilizing hormones. This is important for the female reproductive system.
Soaked or Sprouted nuts, Beans, Seeds, Fish
Antioxidant-rich vegetables – Broccoli, Spinach, Cabbage, Cucumbers
Healing spices and herbs – Cinnamon, Turmeric, Cumin, Garlic, Ginger
You will experience glowing skin, stable moods, fertility and consistent energy. Thus, all four habits play an important role in maintaining the health of a person.
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