Look around you, the objects which you see can be listed as food, clothes, books, medicines they all have something common in them. The versatile “ carbon”
Presence of carbon in atmosphere
The earth’s crust has only 0.02% carbon in the form of minerals like carbonates, coal , petroleum etc. and the atmosphere has 0.03% of carbon dioxide, CO2. But it’s such an important element that one whole branch of chemistry. Organic Chemistry is predominantly contained carbon and it’s compound.
Bonding in carbon
There are basically two types of bonds existing in compounds, ionic and covalent
: formed by giving and taking of valence electrons
Carbon and its compounds have covalent bonds inside them. Formed by sharing of electrons with neighboring atoms.
Reasons for forming covalent bond
1) An atomic number of carbon is 6. Its electronic configuration is 2,4. The number of valence electrons in the outermost shell is 4.
2) It could gain 4 electrons but the nucleus will become unstable.
3) If it loses 4 electrons, but it will require a lot of energy to break away those 4 electrons.
Saturated and unsaturated carbon compounds
Saturated carbon compounds: Methane is an example of the simplest saturated carbon compound. CH4. In the saturated compounds, the octet of participating atoms is completely filled.
Unsaturated carbon compounds: Ethene C2H4 is an example of an unsaturated compound. In the ethane, carbon is not satisfied resulting information of double bonds. This kind of compounds where we have double and triple bond are known classified as unsaturated compounds.
Nomenclature of carbon compounds
1. Alkane: Single bond sharing: Between carbon and hydrogen
2. Alkene :Double bond sharing
3. Alkyne: Triple bond sharing
4. Halogen: they contain prefix like chlorine, bromine, etc; Hydrocarbons bonding with halogen family.
5. Alcohol: Hydrocarbons bonding single bond with OH
6. Aldehyde: Hydrocarbons bonding double bond with oxygen at the last place.
7. Ketone: Hydrocarbons bonding double bond with oxygen at the middle position.
8. Carboxylic acid: Hydrocarbons bonding with COOH
Multiple choice questions:
Q.1 Another name of methane is also
a) Laughing gas
c) Marsh gas
Q.2 Of the things we use in our daily life, carbon is not present in
Q.3 A pair of electrons shared between two neighboring atoms
a) Ionic bond
b) Covalent bond
c) Triple bond
Q.4 The structural formula of methane is
For Online Chemistry Tutoring call us at +1 855 688 8867